The chemical industry is a high-energy-consuming and high-pollution industry. As a key industry for energy conservation and emission reduction, how is the completion of chemical energy-saving and emission-reduction tasks directly affected the realization of the country's overall energy-saving and emission-reduction goals? Therefore, the chemical industry has great responsibilities and faces tremendous pressure.
During the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period, how will the chemical industry complete its mission of energy saving and emission reduction? This reporter interviewed the relevant person in charge of the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Association, the energy conservation and emission reduction situation faced by the chemical industry, the work ideas for energy conservation and emission reduction, and the key energy-saving industries and dyes such as nitrogen fertilizer, yellow phosphorus, calcium carbide, chlor-alkali, and soda ash. The objectives and tasks of key emission reduction industries such as pesticides, pesticides, phosphate fertilizers, sulfuric acid, rubber, and chromium salts are understood and documented. In order to guide the chemical companies to do a good job of energy-saving emission reduction work to provide reference.
The petroleum and chemical industry is the pillar industry of China's national economy. It is an important energy and raw material industry. It is also an industry that consumes high energy and prone to pollution. At present, Chinaâ€™s secondary industry consumes 70% of the countryâ€™s total energy consumption. To achieve the goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% at the end of the â€œTenth Five-Year Planâ€ period at the end of the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period, the industrial sectorâ€™s industrial added value energy should be reduced. 24% to 26% are guaranteed.
In 2006, the energy consumption per unit of GDP in the country was only 1.23% lower than in 2005, while the drop in the energy value added value of petroleum and chemical industry industries was about 2%, and the task of reducing 4% was not completed. According to statistics, in 2005, the chemical industry consumed 30.48 million tons of standard coal, which accounted for about 15% of the total energy consumption in the country. Energy costs accounted for a large proportion of product costs, and energy consumption costs for high-energy products accounted for 60% to 70. %, general product energy costs account for 20% to 30%. Among them, the energy consumption of the five high-energy-consuming industries such as nitrogen fertilizer, soda ash, caustic soda, calcium carbide, and yellow phosphorus accounts for about 60% of the total energy consumption of the industry. In these high-energy-consuming industries, there is a large gap between the energy consumption per unit product and the average level in foreign countries. In 2005, the energy consumption per million yuan in the petroleum and chemical industry was 3.49 tons of standard coal, which was a drop of 20.68% compared with the 4.4 tons of standard coal in 2000. The value-added energy savings amounted to nearly 80 million tons of standard coal. Therefore, the oil and chemical industry is another industry with huge potential for energy conservation.
According to statistics, in 2005, the chemical industry discharged 3.4 billion tons of industrial wastewater, and produced 1.5887 billion cubic meters of industrial waste, generating 92.33 million tons of solid waste. Its wastewater discharge accounted for 16% of the total industrial wastewater discharge in China, ranking first; exhaust emissions accounted for 6% of total industrial emissions in the country, ranking fourth; solid waste emissions accounted for national industrial solid waste discharge 5%, ranking fifth. The discharge of major pollutants in the chemical industry also occupies a considerable proportion in the country. In 2005, COD (chemical oxygen demand) amounted to 949,000 tons, sulfur dioxide (1.168 million tons), cyanide (5066 tons), ammonia nitrogen (260,000 tons), oil (26,600 tons), and smoke (powder) dust (711,000 tons) were among the best in the industry in China. .
At present, many pollutants emitted during the production process of dyes, pesticides, fine chemicals and other industries have no practical treatment technology. In the production process of dyestuffs and pigments, due to the characteristics of small batches, varieties, and long processes, most of them are intermittently discharged. There are many kinds of dust particles and the components are complex. The range of water quality and water volume change is large and the color depth is deep (500 to 50 Million times), high concentration (COD 1000-100,000 mg/L). Pesticide production of pesticides, fungicides, herbicides and other raw drug species, the discharge of wastewater COD concentration of up to several thousand to tens of thousands of mg / liter.
The "Eleventh Five-Year" emission reduction plan requires a 10% drop in sulfur dioxide and COD per unit of GDP. In 2006, the countryâ€™s major pollutants, sulfur dioxide and COD, rose. The country's sulfur dioxide emissions amounted to 25.744 million tons, an increase of 1.8% over the previous year; the country's COD was 14.313 million tons, an increase of 1.2% over the previous year. In industries where COD and sulfur dioxide emissions have increased significantly, the chemical industry ranks among the top three and the top five respectively, all of which are key industries.
Therefore, the chemical industry needs to achieve energy conservation, consumption reduction, and emission reduction targets for major pollutants. It is difficult and the task is urgent. The situation is severe.
China's "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" proposes that by the end of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" period, energy consumption per unit of GDP will be reduced by about 20% from the end of the "Tenth Five-Year Plan" period, and the total discharge of major pollutants will be reduced by 10%. In order to achieve this goal, according to the actual and technical level of the industry, the goal of the chemical industry is to: By 2010, the structure of the oil and chemical industry is more reasonable, the proportion of high-energy-consuming industries has declined, and the pollution environment has changed. The quality of economic growth has been improved and it has initially entered the orbit of circular economy. The energy consumption per 10,000 yuan of industrial added value has fallen by 15% to 20% compared with 2005, and the water consumption per unit of industrial added value has dropped by 30% compared with 2005, and the industrial water use rate has reached 90%, the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste reached 70%, and the total discharge of major pollutants decreased by 10%.
Energy Saving: Chemical Industry Takes on Mission
The nitrogen fertilizer industry is expected to consume 40.45 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer in 2010, 52.5 million tons of synthetic ammonia, and 23 million tons of urea. According to the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" proposal, the goal of determining energy conservation and consumption reduction in the nitrogen fertilizer industry is: In 2010, national energy consumption (large-, medium-, and small-scale weighted averages) of synthetic ammonia per ton was reduced to 1600 kg of standard coal, saving 200 kWh/year. Ton of ammonia, energy efficiency from the current 42.0% to 45.5%, and strive to save energy in the industry 5 million tons of standard coal; through the implementation of circulating cooling water and zero discharge of sewage in the production process, to achieve 10% of ammonia water-saving tons, the basic recovery of waste use.
Yellow Phosphorus Industry During the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period, the Yellow Phosphorus Industry aims to save energy and reduce consumption: The first is to reduce the consumption of unit product resources. The main raw material phosphorus ore consumption reached 8.5 tons (30% P2O5) / ton, down 6%; comprehensive energy consumption reached 7.7 tons of standard coal, down 13%, of which electricity consumption from 14500 kwh / ton to 13,000 kwh / Ton, the water consumption reached 10 tons/ton, a drop of 20%; the discharge of waste water, waste gas, and waste residue was reduced by 20%; the recycling of renewable resources was mainly achieved by the use of phosphorous phosphoric acid and phosphorous slag waste to be widely promoted. The second is the implementation of cleaner production. Promote cleaner production in the whole industry, promote enterprises to adopt advanced technology to transform existing installations, strengthen management of production links, achieve the goal of maximizing the use of materials, energy, and minimizing waste discharge; as soon as possible, all enterprises in the industry reach the national level. Requirements for phosphorus emission standards.
According to the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan," the calcium carbide and alkali industries recommend that the goal of energy conservation and consumption reduction in the calcium carbide and chlor-alkali industries is to implement the Circular of the National Development and Reform Commission on Accelerating the Structural Adjustment of the Calcium Carbide Industry, and to completely shut down and eliminate 5,000 kV. The calcium carbide furnace with an annual output of less than 10,000 tons and less than the annual emission and strict discharge control strictly controls the new projects. In 2010, the production of calcium carbide is controlled at about 16 million tons to achieve a balance between production and demand; through the promotion of large-scale closed-type calcium carbide furnaces and furnace gases, Liquefied kiln gas comprehensive utilization and powder recycling and other technologies will reduce the electricity consumption of the calcium carbide industry from 3,450 kWh to 3,200 kWh, and the comprehensive energy consumption of the unit will be reduced from 2.25 tons of standard coal to 1.96 tons of standard coal; The various dusts are recycled; the dust concentration of emitted flue gas is less than or equal to 150mg/m3; the utilization rate of carbide slag is 80% to 90%, basically fulfilling the large-scale accumulation of carbide slag in the industry. The average AC power consumption per ton of caustic soda was reduced to 2400 kWh, the steam consumption was reduced to 2 tons, the overall energy consumption was reduced to about 1100 kg of standard coal, and the reuse of industrial water in the chlor-alkali industry was increased to about 85%.
Soda Ash Industry According to the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€, the goal of energy-saving and emission reduction of soda ash industry by 2010 is to strive for a significant increase in the efficiency of resource utilization in the soda ash industry, a significant reduction in the final disposal of waste water slag from the ammonia-alkali process, and a balance in the mother liquor from the lye process. , Built a large number of typical enterprises that meet the requirements of circular economy development. The specific objectives are: ammonia-alkali method, ammonia consumption 4 kg per ton alkali, salt consumption 1.4 tons, energy consumption 12 gigajoules, fresh water consumption 10 tons, recycling water utilization rate 95%, waste heat utilization rate 80%, waste residue utilization rate 50% Alkali method, ton alkali consumption 340 kg, salt consumption 1.2 tons, energy consumption 9 gigajoules, fresh water consumption 5 tons, recycling water utilization rate of 95%, 80% utilization of waste heat; natural alkali, tons of alkali trona Consumption 4.2 tons, energy consumption 14.5 gigajoules, fresh water consumption 6 tons, recycling water utilization rate of 95%, waste heat utilization rate of 80%, waste residue utilization rate of 50%.
Emission reduction: Chemical industry plays an important role
During the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period of the dye industry, the dye industry aims to reduce emissions, reduce consumption, and develop a recycling economy. The main objectives are: to eliminate a batch of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises with high raw material consumption, low yields, and severe discharge failures, so that the dye industry can produce The number of factory sites has been reduced to less than 200; all types of dyes with high toxicity, poor performance and inadaptability to the market have been eliminated; raw material utilization rate and recycling rate have been increased, and the unit resource consumption level of the main products (the overall level of the industry) has reached similar foreign products. The advanced level; All dyes enterprise's sewage discharge reaches the national stipulated discharge standard.
During the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period of the pesticide industry, the main development goals for the pesticide industry to reduce emissions, reduce consumption, and develop a recycling economy are as follows: First, eliminate a batch of highly toxic and high-residue pesticides, and develop high-efficiency, safety, economy, and environmental compatibility. The yield of good pesticides, high-toxicity and high-residue varieties fell below 10% of the total pesticide production. The second is to complete the EC replacement plan. Except for the technical reasons for the pesticides that account for about 5% of the total pesticide output, other EC formulations will be replaced by non-emulsion formulations. The third is to increase the utilization rate of pesticide raw materials. The recovery and utilization rate of raw materials and auxiliary materials in pesticide production has reached more than 80%; the input-output ratio of pesticides in raw pharmaceutical production process has dropped from an average of 8:1 to an average of 5:1 or less. The fourth is to form 2 to 3 pesticide industrial parks with centralized production enterprises, optimized resource allocation, and low cost of comprehensive environmental management; the number of pesticide original drug manufacturers has been reduced from the current 500 to 300. The fifth is to strengthen the control and supervision of the â€œthree wastesâ€ emissions from pesticide companies. All pesticide companies must meet the discharge standards. Sixth, the recovery rate of pesticide packaging reached more than 30%.
The phosphate fertilizer and sulfuric acid industry is expected to produce 13 million tons of phosphate fertilizer by 2010, requiring 50 million tons of phosphate ore (30% P2O5 ore), of which high-yield phosphorus and compound fertilizer output will reach 9 million tons, and annual phosphorus emissions. The amount of gypsum is 45 million tons; the output of sulfuric acid will reach 55 million tons, of which the output of pyrite-based sulphuric acid will reach 17 million tons, pyrite slag will be discharged every year of about 12 million tons, and the low-temperature residual heat will be reduced to 2.3 million tons of standard coal annually. According to the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" proposal, the objectives of determining the energy saving and emission reduction of the phosphate fertilizer industry are: phosphate ore beneficiation capacity of 28 million tons per year (30% discount of phosphorus pentoxide ore), phosphate fertilizer industry demand 56 % will be met by low-grade phosphate ore beneficiation; annual treatment capacity of phosphogypsum will exceed 10 million tons; 22% of phosphogypsum emissions will be comprehensively utilized; wet refined phosphoric acid will replace 500,000 tons of thermal-process phosphoric acid; basic of phosphate fertilizer industry Zero discharge of sewage. The average production per ton of sulfuric acid recovers more than 1 ton of medium/low pressure steam, the low temperature residual heat recovery rate reaches 10%, the deep processing of pyrite slag and cinder slag comprehensive utilization rate reaches 30%, and pyrite acid production and smelting flue gas acid production All use dilute acid purification.
The overall goal of the rubber industry in the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period for energy conservation and consumption reduction and circular economy development is to strive to build a policy and legal system that promotes the recycling of waste wheels in China in the period of 3 to 5 years and standardize the establishment of used tires. Recycling system and supervision management system. Second, the tire retreading rate has been increased from the current 4.5% to 8% to 10%, and the total retreaded tire production is 18 to 20 million. Third, the comprehensive utilization of waste rubber increased from 65% to 80%. The production of rubber powder and recycled rubber reached 3.3 million tons, and the comprehensive utilization rate of used rubber was close to that of developed countries. Fourth, the product structure of waste tire re-use has become more rational and the overall industry has developed in an orderly manner. Fifth, the use of new technologies and approaches for the development of waste rubber other than reclaimed rubber and rubber powder.
The goal of saving energy and reducing consumption and developing circular economy in the chromium salt industry during the â€œEleventh Five-Year Planâ€ period of the chromium salt industry is to reduce the consumption of main raw material chromite (Cr2O350%) to 1.14 tons/ton of sodium dichromate; The amount is less than 1 ton per ton of sodium dichromate; all chromium residues are comprehensively utilized or harmlessly treated; full implementation of clean production, the number of enterprises meeting the standard in 2010 accounts for 90% of the total number of enterprises.