A Review of the Development of China's Auto Parts Industry During the Tenth Five-year Plan


During the "10th Five-Year Plan" period, China's auto parts industry has developed rapidly. The auto parts and components basically meet the needs of high-speed automobile production and social maintenance services. Basically, they have the capability of developing and supporting spare parts for commercial vehicles and low-end passenger cars. It has the ability to introduce and digest mid- to high-end passenger car parts.

(1) The rapid development of parts and components industry, the rapid increase in the number of companies, and the rapid increase in total indicators According to the "Automotive Yearbook" statistics in 2000, 1,500 parts and components companies realized a current production value of 59.7 billion yuan, which rose to 197.2 billion yuan in 2004; , an average annual increase of 34.8%. During the "10th Five-Year Plan" period, the automotive industry is developing at an average annual increase of 500 companies, mainly in the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Bohai Rim. From 2000 to 2005, the sales revenue of the automotive industry grew at an average annual rate of 26.05%. Among them, the total vehicle sales of auto vehicle companies have grown at an average annual rate of 21.45%, and the sales revenue of products has grown at an average annual rate of 28.75%; while the auto parts companies have increased their sales revenue by an average of 36.82% annually. The speed of development.

From 2000 to 2005, the total profits and taxes realized by the automotive industry grew at an average annual rate of 26.25%. Among them, the total profits and taxes realized by automobile auto companies grow at an average annual rate of 1.05%, while the total profits and taxes realized by auto parts enterprises develop at an average annual rate of 20.55%.

After the total profits and taxes realized by the automotive industry reached a high growth rate before 2003, the negative growth in total profits and taxes occurred for two consecutive years from 2004 to 2005, and the total profits and taxes realized by the entire automobile industry had an average annual negative growth of 5.7%. Among them, the total profits and taxes of auto OEMs have shown an annual negative growth of 41.45%, while the total profits and taxes realized by auto parts companies have experienced an average annual negative growth of 6.45%.

(II) Products with high technological content and some self-owned brand products have been put on the market one after another. Due to the development of automotive products, as well as the increase in requirements for vehicle safety and emissions, the technical level of auto parts and components is gradually increasing. In China, due to the introduction of technology and joint ventures with foreign advanced companies, some products with higher technological content have also been mass-produced. For example, Shanghai United Electronics Co., Ltd. and Beijing Delphi Wanyuan Engine Management Systems Co., Ltd. respectively introduced Bosch and Delphi technologies to produce gasoline electromechanical spray systems; Shanghai Automotive Braking Systems Co., Ltd. used Bosch technology to produce ABS for cars; Shijiazhuang Jiule Co., Ltd. and Jinzhou Hechang Co., Ltd. Company, Jinzhou Jinheng Company produced airbag products; Dongfeng Honda Engine Company produced automatic transmissions; Dongfeng Automobile Company, Shanghai Hino, and North China Diesel Engine Company introduced and produced Cummins, Hino PCII, Deutz 1015 and other high horsepower Euro III emission levels. Diesel and so on.

(3) The incomplete statistical results of multinational companies’ auto parts investment in China has increased year by year to about 1,500 parts and components enterprises. In 2000, there were 181 parts and components of “funded enterprises”, accounting for 12.1%; by 2004, according to “cars Among the 1,670 enterprises in the annual "statistics," there were 330 "funded enterprises" and the proportion of "funded enterprises" rose to 19.8%. The auto parts companies listed in Fortune 500 have all invested in China and established joint ventures or wholly-owned enterprises in China. These multinational companies have a large scale of operation, strong technical strength and rich experience in transnational operations. They have the ability and experience to participate in the development of new models by complete vehicle companies, and have the capability and experience of system development and module supply. It is the system and module level supplier of the multinational auto group (6+3). The automotive businesses operated by these companies are mainly concentrated in the areas of bodywork, engines, gearboxes, axles, frames, steering, braking, electronics and appliances, trims, air conditioning, passenger protection systems, sound systems, and emission systems. These manufacturing companies, which constitute the most important parts and components of automobiles, have become the backbone enterprises of China's auto parts industry. Foreign parts and components companies have come to China to jointly produce parts and components through joint ventures or wholly-owned production, which has greatly increased the production capacity and technical level of China's domestic parts and components products. Famous foreign parts manufacturers, such as Germany Bosch, ZF, Delphi, TRW, Dana Corporation, Denso, Aisin Seiki, Fujitsu, Alpine Electronics, Valeo, etc., have established several companies in China. Joint ventures and wholly-owned enterprises. These companies are involved in automotive electronics, automotive electronics, car audio, automotive chassis, body parts and other varieties.

(4) The volume of exports has soared, which has achieved a rapid increase in the export value of exports of parts and components greater than the value of imports, which has increased by 6.6 times in five years. The products began to enter the OEM market from the after-sales accessories market. They changed from low-value-added products to high-value-added products, and changed from disordered exports to orders. In particular, some independent brand products began to enter the international procurement system, and the technical level of the export products was also very high. Greatly improved. Over the years, with the development of the automotive market in China, the production and sales volume of the auto parts industry has soared. On the one hand, domestically-manufactured parts and components cannot fully meet the diversified needs of the domestic auto market. The shortage of high-end luxury passenger vehicles and special-purpose special-purpose vehicles spares parts and components to increase imports. Sources of imports are mainly the United States, Germany, Japan and so on. The main types of imported auto parts are some parts with higher technical content such as body parts, transmissions, airbags, and injection systems. As the domestic production of these products failed to reach a certain scale, the production costs remained high and they could only rely on imports to meet the needs of assembly and maintenance. Before 2004, China’s auto parts products had always been imported more than exports, but the export volume increased significantly year by year. By 2005, the export volume of auto parts was greater than the import volume, and there was a turning point in the export of auto parts products from net imports to net exports, and the development trend of exports was very obvious. From the perspective of export development of parts and components, it fully shows the general trend of China's auto parts industry's gradual increase in international competitiveness.

In terms of export factors, in recent years, due to the fact that some foreign parts and components companies have come to China for joint ventures or wholly-owned factories to build auto parts, domestic parts and components companies have also introduced technology to develop and produce high-tech parts and components products to meet At the same time as domestic market demand, foreign exports are also increasing.

With the development of China's auto industry, the international competitiveness of the auto parts industry has gradually increased, the import volume of auto parts and components has been decreasing year by year, and the export volume has been increasing year by year. In 2005, the net export of auto parts products has become inevitable.

(5) The domestic auto parts autonomy development capability and self-owned brand products have great development

During the "10th Five-Year Plan" period, in addition to the development of independent development capabilities and self-owned branded products for commercial vehicles and economical car parts, the domestic auto parts enterprises also have the ability to independently develop key parts and components with high-tech content. The self-owned brand products have made great progress. Such as Shijiazhuang Jiule Company developed and produced airbags, OBD products developed by Shanghai Yunsijia, CVT products developed by Kaifeng Sanming, automatic transmissions (AT) developed by Geely, and 18 kinds of diesel engines developed by Chery (Passenger Vehicles). Used), Euro III diesel engine developed by Weichai, Yuchai, FAW Xichai, etc., Car electronic navigation map, electronic navigation instrument developed by Beijing NavInfo New Navigation Information Technology Company, and diesel electric jet pump developed by Chengdu Witt EFI Wait.

(VI) The initial clustering effect of auto parts production With the rapid development of the auto group, the auto parts industry cluster around the main engine plant has also developed rapidly. Divided by region, the six major component industrial clusters in the Northeast, Beijing-Tianjin, Central China, Southwest, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta have now been formed. The clustering of auto parts industry can make the division of labor more elaborate, more professional, easier to scale, make the information more centralized and faster, the rhythm of technological innovation faster, the logistics easier to organize, and the economic benefits can be significantly improved. The industrial clusters and clustering effects of auto parts will be further developed in the future.

(7) The private enterprises have developed faster and the number has increased dramatically. The private economy has shown obvious growth and competitiveness. It has not only become the main force for the spare parts supply in the aftermarket, but also is the main exporter, and it is creating a batch of internationally competitive ones. Auto parts companies such as Wanxiang Group, Zhejiang Sanhua and Wanfeng Auto.

China's Auto Parts Industry in 2005

In 2005, the domestic auto parts market was about 580 billion yuan, of which the domestic complete vehicle market was about 365 billion yuan, the aftermarket was 95 billion yuan, and the export value was 120 billion yuan (14.85 billion US dollars, customs statistics).

As of 2005, according to incomplete statistics, there are about tens of thousands of auto parts enterprises nationwide. The total number of state-owned and large-scale auto industry enterprises counted by the National Bureau of Statistics was 6315 (including automobiles, modified cars, engines, motorcycles, and accessories), and there were 4505 auto parts enterprises (including engines and motorcycle spare parts enterprises. , the same below, accounting for 71.3% of the total number of automotive companies. The number of auto parts employees is 1.15 million, accounting for 53.2% of the total number of auto industries. Total assets of 422.7 billion yuan (current price, the same below), accounting for 36.3% of the total assets of the automotive industry; of which the average balance of net fixed assets 108.7 billion yuan, accounting for 40.3% of the industry. In 2005, the auto parts industry achieved a total industrial output value (current price) of 415.7 billion yuan, accounting for 34.8% of the total output value of the auto industry; realized sales revenue of 403.5 billion yuan, accounting for 33.9% of the total sales revenue of the auto industry (1.1896 billion yuan); The total amount is RMB 23.6 billion, accounting for 44.9% of the total profit of the auto industry (52.62 billion yuan) (Statistics of the National Bureau of Statistics, and the SAIC Association). In addition, the number of auto parts entrepreneurs and employees at the end of the year accounted for a larger proportion of the industry, and the rest accounted for 30% to 40% of the industry.

The joint reorganization of auto parts companies, the socialization of production, and the rapid development of specialization, such as FAW-Foot Company and Dongfeng Components Business Unit, have already faced a broader market. Private auto parts enterprises are developing rapidly and investment diversification is taking shape. The private enterprises showed obvious growth and competitiveness, and they absorbed the introduction of technology, which greatly improved the technology, quality and level of parts and components. With the entry of automotive multinational companies, the original supporting factories also entered in large numbers, and the trend of wholly foreign-owned and controlling foreign-owned companies is obvious.

China's auto parts enterprises are mainly concentrated in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Hubei, Shandong, Guangdong, Jilin and other regions, among which the parts and components companies in Shanghai and Zhejiang have high output efficiency.

The proportion of enterprises that actually formed scale in the “Top 100 Enterprises” in 2005 was relatively low, with the proportion of large-scale enterprises being less than 1%, and the proportion of large- and medium-sized enterprises being less than 15%. The sales revenue of the “Top 100 Enterprises” was RMB 25.2 billion, which is far from the international parts giant. There are only 4 companies with sales revenue exceeding 10 billion yuan, and 8 companies with over 5 billion yuan.

The proportion of state-owned components in parts and components companies has lost its dominant position. The number of pure state-owned enterprises only accounts for less than 4% of the total. Private companies already account for 42%. The number of foreign companies and Sino-foreign joint ventures has continuously increased, each accounting for 10.5% of the total. If state-owned capital accounts for 30% of Chinese-foreign joint ventures, state-owned capital accounts for about 50 billion yuan in statistics, accounting for 14% of total capital.

The average size of foreign companies and Sino-foreign joint ventures is higher than that of state-owned and private enterprises. Among the "Top 100 Enterprises", the number of foreign companies and Sino-foreign joint ventures exceeds half, reaching 52 companies. The average output benefit of foreign companies and Sino-foreign joint ventures is better than that of state-owned enterprises and private enterprises. The average company's average sales revenue margin was 5.8%, of which foreign companies accounted for 5.9%, Chinese-foreign joint ventures 8.5%, and private companies 5.4%. State-owned enterprises were liabilities. The average sales revenue margin of "Top 100 Enterprises" was 6.4%, of which foreign companies were 5.2%, Sino-foreign joint ventures were 10.65%, private enterprises were 5.3%, and state-owned enterprises were 3.7%.